2015 NOBEL PRIZE WINNERS ANNOUNCED
Noble prize winners in physics in 2015 – Top physics prize in the world for 2015 went to Takaaki Kajita from University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Japan and Artur B. McDonald from King’s university, Kingston, Canada for their work on how neutrinos, elusive subatomic particles change their flavours, thus increasing our understanding of the innermost workings of matter and the universe. Neutrinos along with electrons and quarks are the basic particles of nature that we do not know how to sub-divide further. Neutrinos are made in very large numbers in the nuclear reactions that power the sun and in the atmosphere by cosmic rays. Noble committee said that the fact that Neutrinos can alter their identities has changed our understanding of the universe because it implies that they have mass, which in turn meant that our standard model of physics for explaining the universe is not yet complete. The discovery opened up an entirely new field of physics research.
Noble prize winners in Chemistry for 2015 - From the moment an egg is fertilized, it begins to divide. Two cells become four, four cells become eight and so on. After a week, a human embryo will have 128 cells each with its own genetic material. As this process continues, many more billions of divisions take place on our path from child to adulthood in the process accumulating enough DNA. Through this process the genetic information is copied faithfully. Any chemical process that does the copying is prone to errors. Tomas Lindahl from Sweeden, Paul Modrich from US and Aziz Sancar from Turkey received Noble prize in 2015 in chemistry for their work on mechanisms cells use to repair the faults developed in the DNA through this process of copying. Lindhahl who is the director of Cancer research in UK’s Clare Hall laboratory, started his investigation of enzymes that protect incorrect pairing up in DNA since early 1970s. On the other hand, DNA can also be disrupted by UV radiations and Sacar discovered an enzyme that repairs UV-damaged DNA. This research could lead to knowledge about molecular causes of hereditary diseases and mechanisms behind both cancer development and aging.
Nobel prize winners in Medicine in 2015 – Before this discovery, Chloroquine is the most widely used medicine to fight Malarial parasites. However, it has become less effective as Malarial parasites have become resistant to this drug. Tu Youyou, from China academy of traditional Chinese medicine has shared the Nobel prize in medicine this year along with William C Campbell from Ireland Dew university, USA and Satoshi Omura from japan Kitasato university, Japan for discoveries to fight malaria and other infections caused by roundworm parasites. Tu discovered a new drug called Artemisnin, that can fight Malarial parasite more effectively than Chloroquine. William Campbell and Satoshi Omura won the Nobel prize for discovery of Avermectin, as a treatment for roundworm parasites.
WORLD ANIMAL WELFARE DAY
LIVE WITH THEM, LAUGH WITH THEM AND LOVE THEM
Animals play a very important role in our lives. Their support and companionship enriches our lives and also makes us better human beings. A great historical journey has been travelled together by animals and human beings. Every year 4th of October is celebrated as animal welfare day in every corner of the world. The reason for choosing October 4th was because it is the feast day of St. Francis, the patron saint of animals. This day is entirely dedicated for the welfare of animals. The celebration of this day was first started by ecologists in 1931 in Florence, Italy. The main purpose of this day in the beginning was to highlight the issues of endangered species but slowly the idea grew in scope and later included all forms of life.
World animal day is not restricted to any one nationality, religion, creed, political belief or ideology. This is a festival celebrated by all those people who have love towards animals. Animal welfare groups, schools, individuals, several organizations, charitable trusts and clubs etc take part in animal day celebrations. Numbers of events taking place on this day have been gradually increased with every passing year. All the animal organizations unite and work together on this day. The main purpose of this day is to save endangered species and also to ensure protection to other animals as well.
Different animal welfare campaigns are launched on animal welfare day and also rescue shelters for animals are opened in different parts of the world. Many voluntary organizations come forward to provide shelters for animals. This day reminds us the importance of animals for the human beings. An official website for the animal welfare day has been launched on 4th of October, 2003 which was useful to bring this day into lime light. Media and telecommunications played a very important role in spreadingthe importance of this day which has resulted in change in the attitude towards the cruelaity of animals.
The main concern of animal welfare organizations on this day is to acknowledge the various roles that animals play in our lives, to value and protect the relationship between mankind and animals and to be thankful to all the various forms of animals. Different animal welfare organizations cooperate with each other and work together on this day. The animal welfare day is endorsed and supported by national and international celebrities.
What can be done by us to help animals??
- One of the most powerful and best ways is to become a vegetarian which will save animals, protect the ecology of the planet and also improves our health.
- Stop buying things made out of animals. For example: leather and fur.
- Do not buy any kinds of products that are tested on animals.
- Extend your support to animal welfare organizations and know more about animal rights.
- Take part in awareness building events that take place on animal welfare day.
WORLD HABITAT DAY
PROTECT THE HABITAT FOR HUMANITY
Any environmental or ecological area that is inhabited by a particular plant or animal species, human being or any other type of organism is defined as habitat. A habitat is a place where living things find shelter, food, protection and mates for reproduction. Physical factors such as soil, range of temperature, moisture, and availability of food and the presence of predators make up habitat. Therefore it is our responsibility to protect the habitat for the upcoming generations.
A day to recognize the right of human beings for adequate shelter has been launched by the United Nations General Assembly in the year 1985, which is called World Habitat Day. It is celebrated annually on the first Monday in the month of October. World habitat day also encourages action towards ending the poverty housing. The main purpose of this day is to reflect on the states of our cities and towns and the basic right for shelter of humans. It also aims in reminding the world about protecting the habitat for our future generations.
The first World Habitat day was celebrated in the year 1986 with the theme “Shelter is My Right”. World habitat day celebrations are observed in different parts of the world which include China, India, Angola, Mexico, Poland, and United States. Various events are organized on this day for observing the problems of rapid urbanization and its impact on human poverty and environment. “Habitat Scroll of Honour” award which is believed to be the most prestigious human settlement award is presented on this day. This award aims in acknowledging outstanding contributions in areas such as shelter provision, leadership in post conflict reconstruction, highlighting the difficulties of homeless, and developing and improving the shelter for human beings quality of urban life. The United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UNHSP) launched this award in the year 1989.
The World Habitat is celebrated every year with a new theme. Some of the themes are as follows:
- Shelter for the Homeless in 1987
- Our Neighborhood in 1995
- Future Cities in 1997
- Safer Cities in 1998
- Women in Urban Governance in 2000
- Cities without Slums in 2001
- Water and Sanitation for Cities in 2003
The theme of 2015 World Habitat Day is “Public Spaces for all”. The objective of the World habitat day campaign, 2015 is to focus on the issues concerning public spaces. Public spaces include streets, parks, markets, sidewalks and play grounds. Public spaces which are considered to be the backbone of the cities are most often overlooked and undervalued. Public places are those places which are accessible and enjoyed by everyone without any motive for profit.
Keeping the public spaces neat and clean promotes good health, happiness and well being for all the citizens. Good public spaces also promote economic development and environmental sustainability. Well designed public spaces are a key asset for cities economy and livability.
Show your support on this World Habitat Day by participating in world habitat day event or by organizing your own event in your community.